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Topic 10 – The Gaseous State

 GAS PRESSURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT Pressure Units of pressure Measuring pressure Atmospheric pressure Pressure of gases Closed-tube manometer Open-ended manometer EMPIRICAL GAS LAWS Boyle’s Law:  Pressure-Volume relationship Charles’ Law: Temperature-Volume relationship Gay-Lussac’s Law:  Temperature-Pressure relationship Avogadro’s Law:  Quantity-Volume relationship DERIVED GAS LAWS Combined Gas Law Ideal Gas Law Mathematical derivation Calculations using the Ideal Gas Law Calculations involving just P, V, n, and T Calculations involving mass or molar mass, P, V, n, and T Calculations involving density and molar mass STOICHIOMETRY AND THE IDEAL GAS LAW GAS MIXTURES Partial pressures and mole fractions Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures Partial pressure Mole fraction Relationship between mole fraction and partial pressure Gases collected over water KINETIC THEORY Definition The five postulates of the Kinetic Theory of Ideal Gases Gases are composed of particles, atoms or molecules, whose size can be considered to be negligible. Gas particles are in continuous random motion. The attractive forces between particles have a negligible effect on their behavior. Collisions between gas particles are elastic. The average kinetic energy of a particle is directly proportional to the absolute temperature. EXPLAINING THE GAS LAWS FROM THE KINETIC THEORY Explaining Gay-Lussac’s Law Explaining Boyle’s Law Explaining Charles’ Law Explaining Avogadro’s Law Explaining the Ideal Gas Law DIFFUSION AND EFFUSION AND THE KINETIC THEORY Diffusion Effusion Graham’s Law Root-mean-square molecular speed REAL GASES Conditions under which real gases deviate from ideal gases Two assumptions that do not hold true for real gases That the volume of the gas particles themselves is effectively zero That there is no force of attraction between gas particles Two conditions under which the behavior of real gases deviate significantly from the behavior of ideal gases. High pressure Low temperature In general, the closer a gas is to the liquid state the more it will deviate from the Ideal Gas Law. Real gases adhere to a corrected form of the Ideal Gas Law Equation called the van der Waals Equation.