INTRODUCTION
TO SOLUTIONS 

Types of solutions 


Gaseous solutions 


Liquid solutions 


Solid solutions 

Terms for the parts of a solution 


Solvent 


Solute 
THE
SOLUTION PROCESS 

Summarized in terms of free energy 


Entropy
changes (increasing disorder) tend to favor solution formation 


Enthalpy
changes (heat changes) may or may not favor solution formation 


It is the total energy change that controls the
solution process 

Enthalpy changes and solution formation 


Three interactions involved in solutions 


These interactions may involve 



Ionic bonding 



Intermolecular forces 

The three processes involved in the formation of
a solution 


Separation of solvent particles from each other 


Separation of solute particles from each other 


Surrounding the solute particles by the solvent
particles 


Energy changes and the solution process 
SOLUBILITY


Terms relating to solutions and their formation 


Dissolving 


Crystallization 


Soluble 


Insoluble



Miscible 


Immiscible 

Solubility and solutions 


Solubility 


Saturated solution 


Unsaturated solution 


Supersaturated solution 


Comparison among these three 
EFFECTS
OF TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE ON SOLUBILITY 

Solids 


Effect of temperature on the solubility of
solids 


Effect of pressure on the solubility of solids 

Gases 


Effect of temperature on the solubility of gases 


Effect of pressure on the solubility of gases
and Henry’s Law 
SOLUTION
CONCENTRATION 

Molarity 

Mass percentage of solute 

Molality 

Mole fraction 
CONVERSIONS
AMONG CONCENTRATION UNITS 

Converting percent to mole fraction 

Converting molality and mole fraction 

Converting molality and molarity 
INTRODUCTION
TO COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES 

Definition 

List of colligative properties 
VAPOR
PRESSURE LOWERING 

Vapor pressure lowering 


Definition 


Symbol 


Equation 

Raoult’s Law 


Verbal definition 


Mathematical definition 


Vapor pressure lowering depends on the
concentration of the solute but not on its specific nature 
BOILING
POINT ELEVATION 

Verbal definition 

Mathematical definition 

Equation for boiling point elevation 
FREEZING
POINT DEPRESSION 

Verbal definition 

Mathematical definition 

Equation for freezing point depression 

Freezing point depression may also be used to
determine molecular weight 
OSMOSIS 

Osmosis defined 

Osmotic pressure defined 

Equation for osmotic pressure 
COLLIGATIVE
PROPERTIES OF IONIC SOLUTIONS 

The key difference between the numerical values
for molecular and ionic 


Depends on the number of particles in the
solution 


Ionic will always be greater than molecular 

The form of the equations for colligative
properties of ionic solutions 


General form 


The
van’t Hoff factor 