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Topic 14 – Nuclear Chemistry

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The first three types of radiation discovered
Alpha radiation
Beta radiation
Gamma radiation
Nuclear Equations
Nuclide symbol
Isotope name
Reactants and products
Other particles
Conservation rules for nuclear reactions
Total charge is conserved - conservation of atomic number
Total number of nucleons is conserved - conservation of mass number
Comparison of chemical reactions and nuclear reactions
Writing nuclear equations
Nuclear Stability
The strong nuclear force holds the nucleus together
Predicting nuclear stability
There is a “band of stability” in a plot of number of protons versus number of neutrons
Types of radioactive decay
5 common types
Alpha emission
Beta emission
Positron emission
Electron capture
Gamma emission
Predicting types of radioactive decay
Particle accelerator
Transuranium elements
Bombardment reactions
Rules for writing the abbreviated notation for bombardment reactions
Examples of writing the abbreviated notation for bombardment reactions
Examples of writing the nuclear equations from abbreviated notation for bombardment reactions
Two types of biological damage from radiation
Chemical basis for radiation damage
Due to the ionizing ability of these types of radiation
Alpha and beta particles, as well as gamma photons, can cause ionization, and are therefore called “ionizing radiation”
These can directly ionize biological and organic molecules
In addition, these can and do form radicals (also called “free radicals”)
Formation of radicals
Factors that affect the amount of damage caused by radiation
The intensity of the radiation
The energy of the radiation absorbed
The type of radiation absorbed
Units of radiation
Curie – disintegrations
Roentgen – output
rad – absorbed
rem – damage
Duration of exposure is critical for determining the effects
All radioactive decays obey first-order kinetics
The mathematics of radioactive decay
Calculations involving radioactive decay
Calculating the decay constant from a measure of the activity of a substance
Calculating the half-life from the decay constant
Calculating the half-life from activity measurements
Calculating the decay constant from the half-life
Using radioisotopes for dating samples
Deriving the radiodating equation
Approach to radiodating