RADIOACTIVITY


The first three types of radiation
discovered 


Alpha radiation 


Beta radiation 


Gamma radiation 

Nuclear Equations 


Nuclide symbol 


Isotope name 


Reactants and products 



Nuclides 



Other particles 

Conservation rules for nuclear
reactions 


Total charge is conserved 
conservation of atomic number 


Total
number of nucleons is conserved 
conservation of mass number 


Comparison of chemical reactions
and nuclear reactions 


Writing nuclear equations 

Nuclear Stability 


The
strong nuclear force holds the nucleus together 


Predicting nuclear stability 


There is a “band of stability”
in a plot of number of protons versus number of neutrons 

Types of radioactive decay 


5 common types 



Alpha emission 



Beta emission 



Positron emission 



Electron capture 



Gamma emission 


Predicting types of radioactive
decay 
NUCLEAR
BOMBARDMENT REACTIONS 

Transmutation 

Particle accelerator 

Transuranium elements 

Bombardment reactions 


Rules for writing the abbreviated
notation for bombardment reactions 


Examples of writing the abbreviated
notation for bombardment reactions 


Examples of writing the nuclear
equations from abbreviated notation for bombardment reactions 
BIOLOGICAL
EFFECTS OF RADIATION 

Two types of biological damage from
radiation 


Somatic 


Genetic 

Chemical basis for radiation damage 


Due to the ionizing ability of
these types of radiation 


Alpha and beta particles, as well
as gamma photons, can cause ionization, and are therefore called
“ionizing radiation” 


These can directly ionize
biological and organic molecules 


In addition, these can and do form
radicals (also called “free radicals”) 


Formation of radicals 

Factors that affect the amount of
damage caused by radiation 


The intensity
of the radiation 


The energy
of the radiation absorbed 


The type
of radiation absorbed 

Units of radiation 


Curie – disintegrations 


Roentgen – output 


rad – absorbed 


rem – damage 

Duration of exposure is critical
for determining the effects 
KINETICS
OF RADIOACTIVE DECAY 

All radioactive decays obey
firstorder kinetics 

The mathematics of radioactive
decay 

Calculations involving radioactive
decay 


Calculating the decay constant from
a measure of the activity of a substance 


Calculating the halflife from the
decay constant 


Calculating the halflife from
activity measurements 


Calculating the decay constant from
the halflife 

Using radioisotopes for dating
samples 


Deriving the radiodating equation 


Approach to radiodating 



