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Topic 16 - Acids and Bases

Download full set of notes for Topic 16 (MS Word 2000)

THREE CONCEPTS OF ACIDS AND BASES
Arrhenius concept of acids and bases
Acids
Properties
Arrhenius definition of an acid
Strong and weak acids
Bases
Properties
Arrhenius definition of a base
Strong and weak bases
The hydrogen ion in water
The net ionic equation for the neutralization reaction of Arrhenius acids and bases
Evidence for the Arrhenius theory
Drawbacks to the Arrhenius theory
Brnstead-Lowry concept of acids and bases
Brnstead-Lowry definition of acids and bases
Brnstead-Lowry definition of an acid
Brnstead-Lowry definition of a base
Comparison of the Arrhenius concept and the Brnstead-Lowry
Example of the equation for the neutralization reaction of Brnstead-Lowry acids and bases
Conjugate acids and bases
Writing the formulas for conjugate acids and conjugate bases
Identifying conjugate acids and bases
Lewis concept of acids and bases
Lewis definition of acids and bases
Lewis definition of an acid
Lewis definition of a base
Comparison of the Brnstead-Lowry concept and the Lewis concept
Example of the equation for the neutralization reaction of Lewis acids and bases
The formation of coordinate covalent bonds as a Lewis acid-Lewis base reaction
Identifying Lewis acids and Lewis bases
ACID-BASE PROPERTIES OF WATER
The autoionization of water
Definition
Reaction
The ion-product constant for water
Derived
Value for Kw
Values for H+ (aq) and OH- (aq) for aqueous solutions
Kw and Arrhenius definitions
Determining concentrations of H+ and OH- for aqueous solutions of strong acids or strong bases
THE pH SCALE
Definition of pH
Definition of pOH
Mathematical relationships among Kw , pH, and pOH
pH and pOH and Arrhenius definitions
Examples of calculating pH and pOH from molar concentrations
Example of calculating [H+] and [OH-] from pH and pOH