ACID
IONIZATION EQUILIBRIA 

Acid
ionization constant – K_{a} 


Definition



Derivation


Determining
the degree of ionization 


Electrical conductivity or
colligative properties 


Measurement
of pH 

Calculations involving K_{a} 


Approximation
method 



Procedure




Example



Quadratic
formula 



Procedure




Example



Calculating
K_{a} using pH 



Procedure




Example


Calculating
percent ionization for a weak acid 


Definition
of percent ionization 


Procedure 


Examples




Given initial
concentration and pH 



Given initial
concentration and K_{a} 

Calculations
involving polyprotic acids 


Sequential
ionization of polyprotic acids 


Some
polyprotic acids and their K_{a}’s 


Patterns



Procedure



Example^{
} 
BASE
IONIZATION EQUILIBRIA 

Base ionization constant – K_{b} 


Definition



Derivation


Calculations
involving K_{b} 


Approximation
method 


Using the
quadratic formula 

Example 
RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN THE IONIZATION CONSTANTS OF ACIDS AND THEIR CONJUGATE BASES 

Relative
strengths of acids and bases 


The
stronger the acid, the weaker the conjugate base 


The
stronger the base, the weaker the conjugate acid 


Acidbase
reactions proceed in the direction of the weaker acid and weaker base 


Examples


The
mathematical relationship between K_{a} and K_{b} 


Relationship derived 


Calculating
K_{b} for the conjugate base of an acid 



Procedure




Example

MOLECULAR
STRUCTURE AND ACID STRENGTH 

Two
factors affect the extent to which an acid ionizes 


Bond
strength 


Bond
polarity 

Binary acids 


Effect of bond strength 


Effect
of bond polarity 

Oxyacids 


Effect
of increasing electronegativity of the central atom 


Effect
of increasing number of O atoms 

Polyprotic
acids and their corresponding acid anions 


Effect
of increasing charge on the acid particle 


Example

ACID
 BASE PROPERTIES OF SALT SOLUTIONS 

Salt
hydrolysis 


Definition



Description



Examples


Ions
and hydrolysis 


Ions
that do not undergo
hydrolysis 


Ions
that do undergo hydrolysis 

Predicting
whether a salt solution will be acidic, basic, or neutral 


Rules of
thumb 


Examples


Calculating
the pH of salt solutions 


Procedure



Examples

THE
COMMON ION EFFECT 

Definitions


Descriptions


Qualitative
models of the common ion effect 


A
solution of a weak acid HA 


A
solution of a weak base B 

Calculations
involving the common ion effect 


Procedure



Example

BUFFERS 

Definition 

Important role of buffers 

Description 

Making buffer solutions 


By
direct addition 


Forming
the salt in solution 

How a
buffer works 

Identifying
solutions that are buffers and those that are not 

Two
important characteristics of buffers 


The pH
of the initial buffer solution 


Buffering
capacity 

The
derivation of the HendersonHasselbalch equation 

Calculations
involving buffers 


Calculating
the pH of the initial buffer solution 


Calculating
the pH of a buffer solution after the addition
of acid or base to that
solution 


Making a
buffer solution of a specified pH 
ACIDBASE
TITRATION CURVES 

Acidbase
titration 


Definition
of acidbase titration 


Equivalence
point 


End
point 


Indicators


Three types of titration curves 


Titration
of a strong acid by a strong base 


Titration
of a weak acid by a strong base 


Titration of a weak base by a strong acid 

pH
calculations and titrations 


Procedure 


Examples
involving the titration of a strong acid by a strong base 


Examples
involving the titration of a weak acid by a strong base 