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Topic 17 Acid-Base Equilibria

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ACID IONIZATION EQUILIBRIA
Acid ionization constant Ka
Definition
Derivation
Determining the degree of ionization
Electrical conductivity or colligative properties
Measurement of pH
Calculations involving Ka
Approximation method
Procedure
Example
Quadratic formula
Procedure
Example
Calculating Ka using pH
Procedure
Example
Calculating percent ionization for a weak acid
Definition of percent ionization
Procedure
Examples
Given initial concentration and pH
Given initial concentration and Ka
Calculations involving polyprotic acids
Sequential ionization of polyprotic acids 
Some polyprotic acids and their Ka
Patterns
Procedure
Example
BASE IONIZATION EQUILIBRIA
Base ionization constant Kb
Definition
Derivation
Calculations involving Kb
Approximation method
Using the quadratic formula
Example
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE IONIZATION CONSTANTS OF ACIDS AND THEIR CONJUGATE BASES
Relative strengths of acids and bases
The stronger the acid, the weaker the conjugate base 
The stronger the base, the weaker the conjugate acid
Acid-base reactions proceed in the direction of the weaker acid and weaker base   
Examples
The mathematical relationship between Ka and Kb
Relationship derived
Calculating Kb for the conjugate base of an acid
Procedure
Example
MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND ACID STRENGTH
Two factors affect the extent to which an acid ionizes
Bond strength
Bond polarity
Binary acids
Effect of bond strength 
Effect of bond polarity
Oxyacids
Effect of increasing electronegativity of the central atom
Effect of increasing number of O atoms 
Polyprotic acids and their corresponding acid anions
Effect of increasing charge on the acid particle
Example
ACID - BASE PROPERTIES OF SALT SOLUTIONS
Salt hydrolysis
Definition
Description
Examples
 Ions and hydrolysis 
Ions that do not undergo hydrolysis
Ions that do undergo hydrolysis
Predicting whether a salt solution will be acidic, basic, or neutral
Rules of thumb
Examples
Calculating the pH of salt solutions
Procedure
Examples
THE COMMON ION EFFECT
Definitions
Descriptions
Qualitative models of the common ion effect
A solution of a weak acid HA
A solution of a weak base B
Calculations involving the common ion effect
Procedure
Example
BUFFERS
Definition
Important role of buffers
Description
Making buffer solutions
By direct addition
Forming the salt in solution
How a buffer works
Identifying solutions that are buffers and those that are not 
Two important characteristics of buffers
The pH of the initial buffer solution
Buffering capacity
The derivation of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
Calculations involving buffers
Calculating the pH of the initial buffer solution
Calculating the pH of a buffer solution after the addition of acid or base to that solution 
Making a buffer solution of a specified pH
ACID-BASE TITRATION CURVES
Acid-base titration
Definition of acid-base titration
Equivalence point
End point
Indicators
Three types of titration curves
Titration of a strong acid by a strong base
Titration of a weak acid by a strong base
Titration of a weak base by a strong acid
pH calculations and titrations
Procedure
Examples involving the titration of a strong acid by a strong base
Examples involving the titration of a weak acid by a strong base