REVIEW OF THE
FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS AND ENTHALPY 
THE SECOND LAW
OF THERMODYNAMICS AND ENTROPY 

Spontaneous
processes 


Definition 


Description 


Examples of
spontaneous versus nonspontaneous processes 

Entropy 


Definition 



Obsolete definition 



Current definition 


Description 

Second law of
thermodynamics 


Verbal definition 


Spontaneous
processes 


Equilibrium
processes 

A molecular
interpretation of entropy 


Molecular motions
and energy 


Microstate 


Boltzmann’s
Equation 


Entropy and disorder 


Entropy and
temperature 


Qualitative rules
for comparing entropy 
THE THIRD LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS AND ENTROPY 

The third law of
thermodynamics 

Corollaries of the
third law of thermodynamics 

The third law of
thermodynamics, absolute entropy, and standard entropy 


Absolute entropy 


Standard entropy 
ENTROPY CHANGE
FOR A REACTION 

Standard entropy of
reaction 

Predicting the sign
of the standard entropy of reaction 


Rules of thumb for
predicting entropy increases 


Examples 

Calculating the
standard entropy of reaction 
GIBBS FREE
ENERGY 

Was a proposal of Willard Gibbs to predict
spontaneity 

Spontaneity and
free energy 


Rule of thumb for reacting systems 


Moving toward this minimum 


Moving away from this minimum 


Spontaneity and the sign of DG 

Temperature and free energy 


The temperature
at which a reaction occurs can affect its spontaneity 


Comparing the enthalpy term and the entropy term
in the Gibbs free energy equation at various temperatures 


Rules of thumb regarding the signs of DH,
DS,
DG
and spontaneity 

Standard free
energy changes 


Definition 


Standard free energy equation


Standard free
energies of formation 


Definitions 



Standard free energy of formation 



Standard free energy of formation of an element 

Calculating free
energy changes 


Calculating
standard free energy from standard enthalpy and standard entropy 


Calculating
standard free energy from standard free energies of formation 

Equilibrium and
free energy 


The approach to equilibrium and the change in
the free energy 


The thermodynamic equilibrium constant 


Calculating K from DG° 



