BACKGROUND
FOR ELECTROCHEMISTRY 

Oxidationreduction reactions 

Oxidation number 

Halfreaction 

Oxidation and reduction 

Review of balancing redox reactions 
VOLTAIC
CELLS 

Definitions 


Electrochemical cell 


Voltaic
cell, also called a galvanic cell 


Electrolytic cell 

Construction of voltaic cells 


Two halfcells that are electrically connected 



Definition of halfcell 



Description
of a simple halfcell 


The
two halfcells must be connected externally by an external electrical
circuit 


The
two half cells must be connected internally by a bridge 

Anodes and cathodes 


Anode



Cathode



Comparison
of the anode and the cathode 


Cell
reaction 

Drawing and labeling a voltaic cell 

Using cell notation for voltaic cells 

Electromotive force 


Potential difference 


Electromotive
force 


Standard
electrode potential – E° 



The
voltage produced when one halfcell is connected to the reference halfcell and both are at standard conditions 



The reference halfcell is a platinum
electrode immersed in 1 M H^{+} and 1 atm H_{2} 



Standard
conditions are 25 °C
and 1 atm 



The
standard electrode potential of the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) is defined to be exactly zero 



Standard
electrode potentials are measured in relation to the SHE 



Reduction
potentials and oxidation potentials 



Standard
reduction potentials 


Determining
the strengths of oxidizing and reducing agents 


Predicting
the direction of spontaneity from standard electrode potentials 


Writing
reactions in the direction of spontaneity using the ““LeftRightBelow
Diagonal Rule” 


Standard cell emf ’s 



Equation 



Combining
halfreactions to determine standard cell emf ’s 


Writing
cell reactions 
FREE
ENERGY AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY 

Free energy change and work 

Electrical
energy and work 


From
physics 


From
chemistry 



Cell
potential and electrical work 



Faraday’s
constant and charge 

Calculating freeenergy changes
from emf ’s 

Calculating emf’s from
freeenergy changes 

Calculating the equilibrium
constant from emf ’s 
CONCENTRATION
AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY 

Nernst equation 


Reaction
quotient 


Relationship
among freeenergy change, standard freeenergy change, and the reaction
quotient 


Deriving
the Nernst equation 

The Nernst equation,
spontaneity, and equilibrium 


The
relationship between E_{cell} and reaction progress 


The
relationship between E_{cell}, spontaneity, and equilibrium 

Calculating E_{cell}
under nonstandard conditions 
ELECTROLYTIC
CELLS 

Background



Electrolysis



Electrolytic
cell 


Commercial
importance of electrolysis 

Electrolysis of various substances 


Background
for electrolytic cells 


Electrolysis
of molten salts 


Aqueous
electrolysis 

Electroplating
of metals 

Stoichiometry of electrolysis 
ELECTROLYTIC
CELLS 

Background 


Electrolysis



Electrolytic
cell 

Commercial
importance of electrolysis 

Electrolysis of various substances 


Background
for electrolytic cells 


Electrolysis
of molten salts 


Aqueous
electrolysis 

Electroplating
of metals 

Stoichiometry of electrolysis 
REDOX TITRATIONS 

Similarities
between acidbase titrations and redox titrations 

Key
points to redox titrations 

Redox
titration calculations 







